Contact Info

26732 Crown Valley Parkway, Suite 327
Mission Viejo, CA 92691


Follow Us

Glossary of Terms

Abdominal Sacral Colpopexy

  • An abdominal repair for advanced prolapse, using mesh to secure the vagina or cervical stump to the ligament along the front of the sacrum. Can be done open or laparoscopic/robotic.

Anal Sphincter

  • Made up of internal and external sphincter muscle- responsible to bowel control.


  • Acquired or primary inability to achieve orgasm.

Atrophic Vaginitis

  • also known as vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). VVA is a lack of estrogen in the vulvovaginal tissues leads to thinning, dryness, pain with intercourse, vaginal and bladder infections. Typically occurs after menopause or from anti-estrogen treatment post breast cancer, can occur on birth control pills.

Anterior Repair

  • Vaginal surgery to repair a cystocele.

Bowel Incontinence

  • Involuntary loss of stool.


  • A small sensitive and erectile part of the female external genitals at the top of the labia minora.

Clitoral Hood

  • A fold of skin that surrounds and protects the glans of the clitoris.


  • Difficulty emptying bowels, hard stools (poop), infrequent stools.


  • Relaxation of the anterior wall of the vagina. This can lead to sensation of pressure or bulge as well as an incomplete emptying of the bladder.


  • Office procedure to look into bladder with thin camera.


  • Pain with intercourse or intimacy, can be acquired or primary, temporary or long term, caused by many different issues: VVA, dryness, vulvar vestibulitis, episiotomy scar, pelvic floor muscle spasm, lichen sclerosis, psychological.

Emsella™ Chair

  • A non-invasive treatment for urinary incontinence (urine leakage). You sit on the chair fully clothed while electromagnetic waves tighten your pelvic muscles.


  • Main female hormone that receptors all over the body; hair, skin, genital

Lichen Sclerosis

  • A condition that creates patchy, white skin that’s thinner than normal.


  • Used to help with intercourse when feeling dry; water-based-glycerin-free, water-based-glycerin based, silicon based, oil based.


  • Supplement that coats the bladder to help prevent/reduce bladder infections.


  • Vaginal hernia where a peritoneal sac containing small bowel extends into the rectovaginal space between the posterior surface of the vagina and the anterior surface of the rectum. Basically, when small bowel presses against and moves the upper wall of the vagina thereby creating a bulge.

Genital Arousal Disorder

  • Reduced sensation in genitals or reduced orgasm.

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

  • Lack of or decreased interest in sex.

Interstitial Cystitis

  • A condition defined by urgency, frequency, and bladder pain for > 6 weeks with no identifiable cause.


  • Removal of the uterus, with or without the tubes and ovaries. The procedure can be done in open surgery, vaginal, laparoscopic, or robotic.


  • Minora – thin lips inner lips of the vulva which meet superiorly at the clitoris. They vary in size and shape Majora- larger lips with hair.


  • Procedure to reduce size of labia.

Levator muscles

  • “Kegel” muscles which are a group of muscles that make up the pelvic floor.


  • Cessation of menstrual cycle for more than 12 months; average age is 52 years old. Perimenopause can start happening much earlier.


  • Material used in most slings for stress incontinence (bladder leakage), it is also used in prolapse repairs for advanced prolapse.

Mid-Urethral Sling

  • A surgery to treat stress incontinence resulting in a >85% dry rate.

Pelvic Floor Myalgia

  • Tightness in the pelvic floor muscle which can lead to pain, leakage, pressure, urgency and frequency.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse

  • Relaxation in the pelvic/vaginal walls: cystocele, rectocele. enterocele, uterine, vaginal vault.

Pelvic Physical Therapy

  • Specially certified physical therapists who treat pelvic floor disorders; leakage, prolapse, pain.


  • Is the time leading up to menopause. Perimenopause starts at different ages. Some women start as early as their late 30s. Some symptoms include mood swings, night sweats, hot flashes, insomnia, weight gain, and/or spotting between periods.

Posterior Repair

  • Vaginal repair of a rectocele.


  • Relaxation of posterior wall of vagina. Can lead to sensation of pressure or bulge, rectal pressure, incomplete evacuation.

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

  • More than 4 UTIs (bladder infections) in 1 year.

Sexual Dysfunction

  • 45% of women report problems related to sex causing them distress.


  • Repair of an anal sphincter tear which almost always happens from childbirth. Better results are achieved if the procedure is done closer to delivery; however, it can be done at any age, if stool loss and tear are present.

Stress incontinence

  • The involuntary loss of urine with activity or cough.


  • Radiofrequency device used to treat vaginal dryness and laxity (looseness).

Urge incontinence

  • The loss of urine when desire to void (urinate/pee) or urge causes leakage.

Urinary Incontinence

  • involuntary loss of urine.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

  • Term often used to describe a bladder infection; cystitis.


  • A bladder function test done to evaluate urinary leakage.

Vaginal Vault

  • Top or apex of vagina once uterus has been removed.

Vaginal Vault Prolapse

  • Relaxation and prolapse of the top/apex of vagina.

Vaginal Vault Suspension

  • Repair of vault prolapse through the vagina – sacrospinous, iliococcygeus, uterosacral suspensions or through the abdomen-uterosacral or sacral colpopexy.


  • Inflammation of the vagina, either due to infection, bacterial imbalance, or allergic.


  • Made up of the labia majora, minora, clitoris, vestibule, urethral opening.


  • A condition describing chronic pain of the vulva-generalized or localized.